This article critically examines the sociological views of Mubeccel B. Kiray, one of Turkey's leading sociologists. Specifically, this article focuses on Kiray's opinions on sociological approach as well as her concepts of social change. It analyzes the determinations of patronage relations on the different segments comprising the social structure of Turkey and the social structure of Ottomans, social stratification, and modernization and consumption indicators. Kiray, widely considered as an empiricist, positivist, evolutionist, and a universalist sociologist, is known for her critiques of Western politicians' and scientists' views on Turkey. The theories she has developed in Turkey through the sociological assessment of shanties, urbanization, and metropolitanism, as well as those she developed based on structural-functionalist sociology, are also discussed in this article.