Characterization of TiO2 synthesized in alcohol by a sol-gel process: The effects of annealing temperature and acid catalyst


SAYILKAN F., ASILTURK M., SAYILKAN H., Onal Y. , AKARSU M., ARPAC E.

TURKISH JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, cilt.29, ss.697-706, 2005 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 29 Konu: 6
  • Basım Tarihi: 2005
  • Dergi Adı: TURKISH JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.697-706

Özet

The effects of annealing temperature and hydrolysis catalyst on the crystalline form and crystallite size of TiO2 prepared by a sol-gel process were investigated. Three types of TiO2 were synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium(IV)-iso-propoxide with water in n-propanol without catalyst (Type-A) and with HCl as catalyst, where the H+/Ti4+ mol ratio was 0.54 for Type-B and 0.2 for Type-C. Hydrolysis products were thermally treated at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 degrees C for 1 h after drying at room temperature. Characterization of the particles was carried out using XRD, BET, TG/DTA and SEM analysis. The pore size distributions were computed by the DFT plus method. The results showed that the acid catalyst and catalyst/alkoxide ratio have a large effect on the formation of anatase TiO2. In particular, it was found that anatase phase TiO2 particles occur at 400 and 500 degrees C for Type-A TiO2, while they do so at nearly 100 degrees C for Type-B and Type-C TiO2. The crystallile size of Type-A, Type-B and Type-C increased from 17.96 to 19.24 nm, from 12.38 to 15.12 nm and from 10.60 to 12.20 nm, respectively, when the thermal treatment temperature was raised from 400 to 500 degrees C.