Practical applications Three different strains of Penicillium roqueforti were used for the manufacture of mold-ripened Civil cheese and these cheeses were ripened at 4 and 10 degrees C for 90 days. Sixty-five volatile compounds were identified in the volatile fractions of the cheeses. The concentration of volatile compounds in cheeses was significantly affected ripening time temperature and by mold strains a lesser extent. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 2-nonanol, methyl dodecanoate, butanoic acid, and decanoic acid were the most frequently identified volatiles. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine were also found. The most abundant biogenic amine was cadaverine. The formation of biogenic amines was significantly influenced by strain, ripening time, and temperature. The biogenic amine content was found to be between 2.41 and 228.94 mu g/g cheese. Ripening temperature and ripening time significantly influenced the formation of volatile compounds and biogenic amines. Moldy Civil is a traditional cheese variety produced in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey and it is protected by geographical indication by Turkish Patent and Trademark Office (TURKPATENT) by 2010. It is manufactured using skimmed milk which is spontaneously acidified with native lactic acid bacteria and also the addition of preacidified whey. Three strains of P. roqueforti was used in Moldy Civil cheese-making and strains of the mold changed the volatile profiles and the levels of biogenic amines less than ripening time and temperature. Methyl ketones and alcohols were the dominant groups in volatiles, while cadaverine was found to be principal biogenic amine in Moldy Civil cheese. Use of P. roqueforti strains contributed to the formation of the volatile fraction of the cheese; however, the level of biogenic amines changed by P. roqueforti strains a lesser extent.