The purposes of this study were to determine energy consumption of input and output used in sugar beet production, and to make a cost analysis in Tokat, Turkey. Data were collected from 146 sugar beet farms in Tokat, Turkey by using a face-to-face questionnaire performed in January and February 2005. Farms were selected based on random sampling method. The results revealed that total energy consumption in sugar beet production was 39 685.51 MJ ha(-1), and accounted for 49.33% of fertilizer energy, and 24.16% of diesel energy. The output/input energy ratio was 25.75 and energy productivity was 1.53 kg MJ ha(-1). Results further indicated that 82.43% of total energy input was in non-renewable energy form, and only 12.82% was in renewable form. Economic analyses showed that profit-cost ratio of farms was 1.17. The highest energy cost items were labor, land renting, depreciation and fertilizers. Although intensive energy consumption in sugar beet production increased the yield, it also resulted in problems such as global warming, land degradation, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy-efficient practices to establish sustainable production systems without disrupting the natural resources. In addition, extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to sustain the natural resources. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.