The endocrine and immune changes associated with surgery are well documented, but the interaction between them has not been fully evaluated. We, therefore, investigated the possible effects of laparascopic cholecystectomy operation on C-reactive protein, hormones, and cytokines. Thirty-five patients were enrolled in the study (26 females and 9 males, aged 42.4 +/- 16.9 yr, who were admitted to General Surgery Clinic for laparascopic cholecystectomy). Serum C-reactive protein, cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, free tri-iodothyronine, free thyroxine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta , soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels were evaluated 6 h before and after the operation. Postoperative cortisol (p = 0.02), TSH (p = 0.034), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p = 0.003), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (p = 0.004) were found to be significantly higher than their corresponding preoperative levels. However, postoperative serum free thyroxine (p = 0.011), and free tri-iodothyronine levels (p = 0.001) were decreased when compared with preoperative levels, respectively. No significant difference was observed in C-reactive protein, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels. C-rective protein levels did not change in the early period of the surgical stress. Cytokine responses observed in the early period were found to be conflicting. Cortisol is an important marker of surgical stress which also has close relationship with thyroid functions. (C) 2004, Editrice Kurtis.