In this study, it was hypothesis that A. mongoliensis could be used as bioindicator for Ni (II) and Co (II). Thus, Ni (II) and Co (II) resistance, removal, bioaccumulation, and the impacts of them on antioxidant enzyme systems of thermophilic Anoxybacillus mongoliensis were investigated in details. The bioaccumulation of Ni (II) and Co (II) on the cell membrane of thermophilic A. mongoliensis, variations on surface macrostructure and functionality by FT-IR and SEM, and determination of antioxidant enzyme activities were also tested. The highest bioaccumulation values of Co (II) and Ni (II) were detected as 102.0 mg metal/g of dry bacteria at 10 mg/L for the 12th h and 90.4 mg metal/g of dry bacteria for the 24th h, respectively, and the highest Ni (II) and Co (II) cell membrane bioaccumulation capacities of A. mongoliensis were determined as 268.5 and 274.9 mg metal/g wet membrane, respectively at the 24th h. In addition, increasing on SOD and CAT activities were observed on depend of concentration of Ni (II) and Co (II) with respect to control. The antioxidant enzyme activity results also indicated that A. mongoliensis might be used as a bioindicator for Ni (II) and Co (II) pollution in environmental water specimens.