Aim: to investigate the potential efficacy of in vivo treatment of accidental vincristine (VCR) overdose using hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Methods: 24 New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups as control, HOCl-treated, VCR + treated and HOCl + VCR-treated, and their clinical and laboratory indexes were examined. Results: there were no clinical and laboratory abnormalities observed in control and HOCl group subjects. All rabbits died after quadriplegia and respiratory insufficiency in VCR and HOCl + VCR groups. Bone marrow suppression was more pronounced and onset of the neurotoxicity was early in VCR group compared to HOCl + VCR group subjects. Serum half-life of VCR was lower in HOCl + VCR group animals suggesting a contribution of HOCl in eliminating VCR resulting in the observed clinical and laboratory differences in these two groups. Conclusion: although further research is necessary, our results indicate a potential role for HOCl in the treatment of accidental VCR overdose.