Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a scaffold for repairing ovarian defects. Method: Fourteen female New Zealand rabbits undergoing ovarian resection were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups. The unilateral ovarian defects were, repaired with SIS in group I animals and without SIS in group 2 animals (control). The volumes of the ovaries were calculated and the severity of adhesions was assessed in I animal from each group each month. The ovaries were removed and examined under a microscope. Results: The volumes of the SIS-grafted ovaries were larger than those of the operated ovaries of the control animals (P<0.05). The SIS-grafted ovaries had a lower adhesion score than the operated ovaries of the control group (P<0.001). SIS grafts showed hemorrhage and leukocyte infiltration until the 4th week after surgery, but the ovarian tissue appeared to be well organized from the 12th to the 16th week. At the 28th week, primordial follicles were scattered in the SIS graft. Conclusion: SIS graft could be used for repairing the ovary after surgery. (C) 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.