The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of preoperative iron deficiency in adult living donor liver transplantation patients and to investigate its relationship with the need for intraoperative transfusion. Between September 1, 2011, and June 1, 2012, 103 patients scheduled for liver transplantation were included in this prospective study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to baseline iron status: an iron-deficient group and a non deficient (normal iron profile) group. Iron deficiency was assessed on the basis of several parameters, including transferrin saturation, levels of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, C-reactive protein, and peripheral blood smear. Preoperative iron deficiency was diagnosed in 62 patients. Preoperative iron deficiency was associated with low preoperative hemoglobin levels (P = .01) and a high rate of intraoperative transfusion (P < .0001). Preoperative iron deficiency is prognostic factor for predicting intraoperative transfusion requirements. These findings have important implications for transfusion practices for liver transplant recipients.