Simple Summary The bulk of research on caffeine as an ergogenic aid has been on endurance performance, however there is evidence that caffeine can enhance short-term high-intensity performance. Caffeine may have an ergogenic impact during anaerobic exercise by facilitating central effects by antagonizing adenosine receptors, hence decreasing the detrimental effects of adenosine on neurotransmission, arousal, and pain perception. Caffeine intake also activates the central nervous system, which promotes alertness and concentration. Additionally, athletes typically consume coffee containing caffeine. To date, the bulk of study has focused on the administration of 3-9 mg/kg of anhydrous caffeine, as opposed to the readily accessible source of caffeine, coffee, and has mostly been conducted on males. Consequently, there is a dearth of study evaluating the ergogenic impact of caffeine on females, particularly when consuming alternative caffeine delivery methods, such as coffee. The current study is the first to investigate the effects of low (3 mg/kg) and moderate (6 mg/kg) doses of caffeine from coffee on repeated sprint performance in females. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low and moderate doses of caffeine ingestion via caffeinated coffee on repeated sprint test (RST) and plasma catecholamine concentration in trained female team-sport athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 13 female team-sport athletes (VO2max: 48.7 +/- 4 mL center dot kg center dot min(-1)) completed three RST trials, separated by 4-day, 60 min post-ingestion of either 3 mg center dot kg(-1) (LCOF) or 6 mg center dot kg(-1) (MCOF) or placebo (PLA). The RST consisted of 12 x 4 s sprints on a cycle ergometer interspersed with 20 s of active recovery. Blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (GLU) and epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were collected before and 60 min after coffee ingestion, and after RST. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the beginning of RST, and after the 6th and 12th sprints. Average peak power score during RST was significantly improved after LCOF (p = 0.016) and MCOF (p = 0.041) compared to PLA, but peak and mean power output of the individual sprints, and fatigue index were not different between trials (all p > 0.05). Epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were significantly higher before and after RST in LCOF and MCOF compared to PLA (all p < 0.05). BLa was also higher after RST in both LCOF and MCOF compared to PLA (p = 0.005). HR, RPE, and GLU were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusion, low and moderate dose of caffeine ingestion can enhance the average peak power score during repeated sprints. These findings partly support low and moderate doses of caffeine supplementation via coffee as a nutritional ergogenic aid for trained female team-sport players during repeated sprint exercise.