N-heterocyclic carbenes are of central importance in many domains of chemistry such as organometallic, catalysis and bioinorganic. Their great importance is due to their ability to act as ligands with a large number of transition metals. These Metal-NHCs are used as catalysts in various organic transformations with good biological properties. A wide range of Metals - NHC has been found to be useful as a catalyst in various reactions using Ru, Pd, Ir, Au and Ag. This review examines the different classes of Metal - NHCs and their applications as effective catalysts in several types of organic processes, for example the formation of amide linkage, hydrogenation, isomerization, cycloisomerization, cyclopropanation, hydrosilylation, allylation and desallylation, enol-ester synthesis, heterocycle synthesis, C - C alkyne coupling. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.