Purpose: To evaluate and compare the morbidity and mortality of neonates born to pregnant women with positive and negative cervical cultures. Materials and Methods: The demographic and clinical features of mothers included in this study, along with details of the microorganisms isolated on maternal cervical cultures and the number of days between a positive cervical culture and delivery were recorded. Neonates were stratified into two groups based on cervical culture results of their mothers - Group 1, positive cervical culture; Group 2, negative cervical culture. Results: A total of 216 women who delivered 242 infants were included in the study. Group 1 consisted of 90 neonates while Group 2 had 152 newborns. The difference between the groups with demographic characteristics was statistically insignificant. Mean levels of the acute phase reactants, CRP, and IL-6, obtained six hours after delivery were significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (p < 0.05 for C-reactive protein (CRP) andp < 0.001 for IL-6). Although there was no difference between groups in terms of duration of respiratory support, mean duration of hospitalization, as well as mortality rate were significantly higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001,p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Women diagnosed with a high-risk pregnancy should be treated with antibiotics immediately after a positive cervical culture result, and delivery should be delayed until the success of antibiotic treatment can be evaluated. Early initiation of maternal antibiotic therapy is associated with shorter durations of hospital stay for newborns. Close follow-up of mothers with high-risk pregnancies and extension of treatment duration are critical for determining prognosis in newborn infants.