This investigation describes drug resistance patterns and genotyping data on a total of 145 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated between 2000 and 2004 in Malatya, Turkey. Drug susceptibility results indicated a total of 20% resistant and 4.8% of multidrug-resistant isolates. Spoligotyping resulted in 25 unique patterns and 120 strains in 19 clusters (2 to 33 strains per cluster). When the results were compared to an international spoligotyping database, 19 of 25 unique patterns matched existing shared spoligotype international types (SITs). This led to the description of 38 SITs with 139 strains and 6 orphan patterns (not previously reported). Five of the SITs (SIT759, SIT1936, SIT1937, SIT1938, and SIT2285) were newly created. The most prevalent spoligotype was SIT41 (LAM7-TUR) with 33 (23.9%) isolates. The repartition of strains according to major M. tuberculosis clades (in decreasing order) was as follows: ill-defined T clade (45.7%) > Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM; 29%) > Haarlem (15.9%). Strains belonging to Central Asian (CAS), East-African Indian (EAI), Beijing, and Africanum clades were absent in this setting. IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) resulted in 19 clusters (52 strains), with a final clustering rate of 35.9% and a recent transmission rate of 22.8%. Typing based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) permitted us to identify 65 patterns (23 orphan patterns and 42 patterns that matched existing MIRU international types in an updated database). The combination of the three typing methods allowed us to calculate a final clustering rate of 22% and a significantly lower transmission rate of 13.1%. The discrimination achieved by IS6110-RFLP/MIRUs was not significantly improved by adding spolligotyping results (1.4%). We conclude that our patient population is infected by diverse M. tuberculosis populations; however, the majority of the ongoing transmission is due to "evolutionary recent" tuberculosis lineages belonging to principal genetic group 2 (PGG2; Haarlem and LAM) and PGG3 (ill-defined T clade), and most of it is attributable to the LAM7-TUR sublineage with an enhanced phylogeographical specificity for Turkey. An absence of lineages belonging to PGG1 clones (EAI, CAS, and Beijing, essentially found in Central, South, and Southeast Asia), is noteworthy.