In this study, the members of the genus Cirsium Mill. sect. Cirsium (Asteraceae: Cardueae) in Turkey are revised. The species C. eliasianum Kit Tan & Sorger is regarded as a synonym of C. frickii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. The name C. alatum subsp. alatum was misapplied for C. elodes M. Bieb. and C. elodes was misapplied in Turkey for C. subinerme Fisch. & C.A. Mey. In addition, two new hybrids, C.x prativagum Petr. and C. x woronowii Petr., are newly recorded for the flora of Turkey. The lectotype of C. pseudopersonata Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss. subsp. kusnezowianum (Sommier & Levier) Petr. is designated here. As a result, the genus Cirsium is represented by 66 species (78 taxa) in Turkey, of which 17 species (27 taxa) belong to C. sect. Cirsium. In addition, an identification key of species, detailed morphological descriptions, color photographs, and images of useful distinguishing characters of all species are given.