Purpose To compare the anterior and posterior segment complications of diode (810 nm) laser photocoagulation (LPC) and Nd:YAG (532 nm green) LPC in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Patients and methods The 84 eyes of 43 patients treated with diode LPC (group 1) and 58 eyes of 31 patients treated with Nd:YAG LPC (group 2) for ROP in our clinic were enrolled in the study. Medical records of all patients were investigated retrospectively. The patients in each group were examined in terms of birth weights, gestational weeks, stage of retinopathy, number of lasers pots, laser parameters, and anterior and posterior complications of LPC. Results The mean birth weeks of group 1 patients were postmenstrual 27.7 +/- 2.5 (23-33), while the mean birth weights were 1006.0 +/- 334.5 (540-1980) grams. The mean birth weeks of group 2 patients were postmenstrual 27.4 +/- 2.6 (23-33), while the mean birth weights were 1073.8 +/- 329.2 (480-1720) grams. The mean numbers of laser spots were 1036.0 +/- 515.2 (430-2410) in group 1 per eye, while the mean numbers of laser spots were 1085.4 +/- 526.0 (445-2530) in group 2 per eye (p >= 0.05). Additional laser application was performed in four eyes (4.8%) in group 1 and four eyes (6.9%) in group 2. Four eyes (4.8%) treated with diode LPC and one eye (1.7%) treated with Nd:YAG laser developed retinal detachment. Two eyes of a patient (3.4%) applied Nd:YAG LPC developed cataract. Conclusion Cataract may develop when Nd:YAG laser is used; however, posterior segment complications may be more likely to appear with the use of diode laser in these cases.