Basis of the Study: Education is considered to be a system that provides solutions to communal problems, developing individual skills, bringing enlightenment and peace to people. However, the situation is somewhat different in Turkey, for education, which is regarded as a problem -solving activity, has itself become a problem. The Turkish education system has become one of our most serious social problems. This problem essentially stems from discussions over which civilization Turkey belongs to: the Eastern or the Western. The conflict between old and new in the Turkish education system is essentially a struggle between those who claim that "Turkish society is an Eastern society" (anti-Westerners) and those who claim that "It is a Western society" (pro-Westerners). This dispute is directly related to the ongoing process of Westernization that started in the 19(th) century. The Turkish education system is suffering from the conflict between old and new. The article is based on the premise that both parties, in effect, have an understanding of education that produces similar results.