Hg(II) and Pb(II) tolerance, removal, bioaccumulation and effects on antioxidant enzymes of thermophilic Exiguobacterium profundum were investigated. The results indicated that Hg(II) was more toxic than Pb(II) to E. profundum. E. profundum was also more tolerant in solid medium than in liquid medium for Pb(II) and Hg(II). The bacterial growth was not significantly influenced at 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L Pb(II) and Hg(II) for 24 h. The highest Hg(II) and Pb(II) bioaccumulation amounts were determined as 37.56 and 54.35 mg metal/dried bacteria, respectively. Bioaccumulation capacities of the cell membrane of E. profundum for Hg(II) and Pb(II) were determined. The different concentrations of Pb(II) and Hg(II) enhanced the SOD and CAT enzymes. In addition, variations of the surface macrostructure and the functionality of E. profundum after the interaction with Hg(II) and Pb(II) were investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. This investigation obviously showed that thermophilic E. profundum can also be applied for removal and recovery of toxic metals from industrial wastewater. Clearly, a further investigation should be utilized by thermophilic microorganisms. According to antioxidant enyzme activities, E. profundum can be also used as a bioindicator for the detection of toxic metal pollution in natural water samples.