Objectives. The relationships between increased wall stress, myocyte death, and ventricular repolarization instability in patients with heart failure were reported. Design and Methods. The relationships between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a predictor of increased wall stress of hearth; troponin I (cTnI), a predictor of myocyte death; and QT dispersion (QT(d)), a reflection of ventricular repolarization instability were evaluated in age- and sex-matched asymptomatic 29 hemodialysis (HD) patients and 26 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and the finding were compared. Results. Serum BNP and cTnI levels in HD patients (722.9 +/- 907.9 pg/mL, 0.05 +/- 0.07 mu g/L, respectively), just before HD, were significantly higher than those of PD patients (255.4 +/- 463.7 pg/mL, 0.02 +/- 0.02 mu g/L, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to corrected QTd and maximum and minimum QT intervals (p > 0.05). Serum cTnI levels were significantly and positively correlated with serum BNP levels in both dialysis groups (r = 0.447, p = 0.048). No relationship was found between plasma BNP and ECG parameters studied in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Increased serum cTnI levels were associated with elevated BNP levels in both dialysis groups. The increases in BNP and troponin I are more likely to reflect hypervolemia. Although CAPD patients were receiving dialysis daily and HD patients were more hypervolemic, CAPD patients have similar QTdc and accordingly a similar tendency toward arrhythmias. This suggests that factors other than electro-mechanical interaction may be important in determining the QT interval length in patients on dialysis.