Experimental studies indicate that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes remote organ injury although the molecular mechanism has not been clearly defined. In this report, the role of oxidative injury on testicular damage following myocardial I/R injury and the effects of antioxidant agents, melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), on testicular injury were investigated. As far as we know, this is the first report demonstrating that myocardial I/R induces damage to the testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO), I/R + vehicle, I/R + melatonin, and I/R + caffeic acid phenethyl ester. To produce cardiac damage, the left main coronary artery was occluded for 30 min, followed by 120 min reperfusion, in anesthetized rats. Serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and morphological changes were examined. I/R was accompanied by a significant increase in serum MDA and NO levels, whereas, melatonin and CAPE administration significantly reduced these values. Melatonin was more efficient in reducing MDA levels than CAPE (P < 0.05). I/R induced myocardial damage, manifested as the histopathological evidence of intracellular vacuolization, interstitial edema, neutrophil infiltration and coagulative necrosis. I/R + vehicle group showed many histological alterations such as focal tubular atrophy, and degeneration and disorganization of the seminiferous epithelium in testes. The number of atrophic tubules and degenerating cells was significantly higher in I/R + vehicle group than that of SO group. Melatonin and CAPE significantly reduced the number of degenerating cells; additionally, melatonin reduced the number of atrophic tubules (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that myocardial I/R induces severe testicular damage and antioxidant agents, especially melatonin, have protective effects on testicular injury after myocardial I/R. Our data emphasize that oxygen-based reactants may play a central role in remote organ injury.