Free oxygen radicals and nitric oxide (NO) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin, a potent free radical scavenger, on the myoglobinuric ARF formed by injecting hypertonic glycerol intramuscularly (im). The rats were randomly divided into 4 Groups. Rats in Group 1 were given saline and those in Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected with glycerol (10 mL/kg) im. Concomitant and 24 hours after glycerol injection Group 3 (5 mg/kg) and Group 4 (10 mg/kg) were administrated melatonin intraperitoneally. Forty-eight hours after the glycerol injection, the blood and kidneys of the rats were taken under anesthesia. Kidney morphology and the levels of urea, creatinine and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in the plasma and the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidney were determined. In both groups of melatonin administration, there was no protective effect of melatonin. Moreover, melatonin significantly decreased the level of NO. As a result, we suggest that the decreasing effect of melatonin on NO, which is a strong vasodilatator, may further increase the renal ischemia in this model. Thus, melatonin may have worsening rather than beneficial effects on myoglobinuric ARF.