Objective: To determine lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and associated risk factors in women aged 20 years and older. Methods: The present population-based, randomized, cross-sectional study recruited 766 women aged 20 years and older from the province of Malatya, Turkey. Data on LUTS were collected via face-to-face interviews between December 1, 2006, and July 30, 2007. The data were reported descriptively and analyzed by logistic regression for associated risk factors. Results: Regarding female LUTS, the incidence of urgency, urinary incontinence, nocturia, and frequency symptoms was 36.1%, 32.4%, 27.1%, and 22.8%, respectively. Logistic regression indicated that LUTS development was 6.1 times higher among women who had vaginal delivery than among those who had cesarean delivery; 3.7 times higher among women with gas incontinence than among those without; 2.9 times higher among women with frequent urinary tract infections that among those without; and 4.8 times higher among women whose mothers had a history of urine incontinence than among those whose mothers did not. Conclusion: Vaginal delivery was found to be the highest risk factor for LUTS among women. (C) 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.