Background Liver transplantation is the best treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although centers use strict selection criteria, there is a risk of recurrence, reaching up to 20% which are mostly observed within two years following the procedure. The survival after the recurrence is poor and it has been reported to be between 7-16 months. This poor prognosis is due to the systemic course of the recurrence even its presentation is local initially. Results The clinical management and treatment algorithm of recurrence is challenging and there is no guideline regarding the situation. Staging of the disease and multi-disciplinary approach are important. The decision for choice of treatment is given depending on the localization and spread of the recurrence. Adjusting and switching the immunosuppressive therapy should be the first attempt. When the recurrence is limited or confined to resectable regions, surgery should be the choice of treatment. Multiple recurrence sites such as adrenal glands, lung, lymph nodes are not contraindication for curative surgery. Resection of the graft for intrahepatic recurrence is the most beneficial procedure for survival. If resection is not possible due to advanced hepatic disease, loco-regional therapies such as TACE, RF, microwave ablation should be considered. SBRT may be an alternative both for hepatic and extra-hepatic recurrence. In case of systemic disease, sorafenib should be the drug choice.