In this work, in order to achieve high energy efficiency, we designed a microsize microbial fuel cell (MCF) based on Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) and vgb(-)/vgb(+) recombinants. In this design, firstly, E. aerogenes as microorganism was used to compare energy efficiency. Then E. aerogenes modified with Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene to enhance its ability to produce protons. The modified E. aerogenes vgb(-)/vgb(+) recombinants were tested in the fuel cell as microorganism. In MCF, bacteria play an important role for the energy production. E. aerogenes is a bacterium that can easily adapt to MFC systems and has high energy production. The aim of the study was to generate electricity in an MFC system that was modeled by us according to current principles using E. aerogenes and vgb(-)/vgb(+) recombinants known to produce high levels of hydrogen. In our study, the voltages produced by the hosts and recombinants under certain feeding environments were measured. Bacteria grown under optimal conditions, at pH 7 and 37 degrees C showed effective performances in the novel MFC system by producing voltages of 0.508 and 0.440 V in 10 mL MCF. The results show that advanced optimization of the medium, MFC elements, and environmental conditions can make our system much more productive and offer a significant contribution to MFC studies. This is the first measurement of the performance of a vgb gene system in MFC.