Background. Antioxidant enzyme activities decrease after bile duct ligation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of melatonin and acetylsalicylic acid on antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric oxidative stress induced by bile duct ligation. Methods. Sixty-four animals were divided into eight groups of eight rats each. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either a sham operation or common bile duct ligation (BDL) before treatment with melatonin (MEL) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Gastric superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined by spectrophotometers and evaluated. Results. Our results indicated that BDL caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, whereas coadministration of MEL with ASA significantly decreased MDA and NO levels in BDL rats. Moreover, coadministration of MEL and ASA increased antioxidant enzyme activities after the BDL, and these increases were statistically significant for CAT and GPx. On the other hand, the increase in SOD activity was not significant. Conclusions. Melatonin administration, either alone or together with acetylsalicylic acid, decreases lipid peroxidation and increases antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric tissues of rats after bile duct ligation. ASA administration, however, either alone or with a vehicle, increases lipid peroxidation and decreases antioxidant enzyme activities.