The pathogenesis of periodontal disease is not solely based on microbial dental plaque but is the result of the multifactorial and complex interaction between infection and host response. Many studies in the literature have demonstrated the differences between individuals in terms of host immune response and the presence of genetic components in numerous pathological conditions. Therefore, periodontitis may be defined as a complex genetic disorder with a phenotype formed by the genetic structure and environmental factors in the affected individual. So, determination of the genetic susceptibility profile associated with periodontitis might be very precious for developing novel diagnostic techniques and individual treatment strategies. To clarify the possible role of genetic polymorphisms in periodontal diseases, we searched PubMed for studies published on the subject since 1997 up to June 2018 and obtained data from original studies, meta analyzes, and systematic reviews. We included only caseucontrol studies with large study populations.