Background: Diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk for developing foot complications and few have studied this complication in the diabetic patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in diabetic patients with ESRD, who are being treated with PD, and to identify those factors that may contribute to its development. Patients: We reviewed retrospectively the charts of 71 diabetic patients who started PD between January 1999 and January 2006, inclusive, and recorded their demographic data, their treatment regimens, their complications and the results of biochemical investigation(s) at the beginning and throughout their follow-up period. All patients were under the care of a chiropodist who examined them at regular intervals and more often when needed. We divided the patients into two groups with respect to the presence of complications in the lower extremities, such as ulcers, open wounds, osteomyelitis, necrotizing or gangrenous lesions, and amputations, intermittent claudication and/or the presence on an imaging examination of changes in the leg vessels consistent with vascular disease. Results: 33 of the 71 patients had some type of a foot lesion. There were 8 amputations in the course of 176 patient-years (2 double amputations), or 1amputation per 30 PD patient-years. Those patients with foot complications were treated more frequently with CCPD (p < 0.05), more often had peripheral neuropathy (p < 0.002), as well as coronary artery disease (p < 0.044). They had lower serum albumin (1) < 0.005), significantly higher s m phosphorus (p < 0.047) and they received higher doses of erythropoietin (p < 0.042). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding sex, age at initiation of PD, type of diabetes, use of insulin, levels of HbA(1c), body mass index (BMI), presence of retinopathy, cerebral vascular disease, hyperlipidemia, smoking, rate of transplantation, rate of drop-out from PD, time-averaged Kt/V, creatinine clearance, serum calcium, Ca x P and intact PTH. In a multiple logistics regression model, only peripheral neuropathy and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with the development of lower-extremity complications (p < 0.0066 and p < 0.026, respectively). One-, two- and three-year cumulative survival of the whole group was 91.5%, 78.8% and 69%, respectively. Patients with foot lesions had a lower survival than those without. Interestingly though, those patients, who had had an amputation, survived as long as those patients, who did not have foot complications at all. Conclusion: In conclusion, compared to reports in the literature, our diabetic patients on PD had a lower rate of foot complications and amputation probably because of early intervention by our chiropodist. This fact stresses the need for constant and expert monitoring of the condition of the diabetic patient's feet, especially in those with low serum albumin and peripheral neuropathy.