Background: Successful use of prostheses after lower-limb amputation (LLA) depends on undergoing physiotherapy and rehabilitation both physically and psychologically. The aim of this systematic literature review is to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding prosthetic rehabilitation and physiotherapy after LLA. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and EMB Reviews databases on December 31, 2015. Studies with the search keywords were identified and independently assessed by reviewers. The search yielded 403 potentially relevant articles after the removal of duplicates. Of these, only nine articles met the inclusion criteria. All studies were original articles, one of which was a randomized controlled study. Different measurement methods were used and positive results in terms of functional status, weight-lifting capacity with prosthesis, walking and balance ability, and acute care process were gained with a physiotherapy program. Conventional methods still possess high importance; however, it is safe to say that virtual reality and software-based programs for rehabilitation are increasingly being developed and getting more and more support. Discussion: LLA rehabilitation is a topic that requires the focus of current and future studies; evidence-based studies are required on the approaches to rehabilitation for specific LLA groups.