Freshwater mussels and crayfish are commonly used as biomonitors of trace metals. In the present study, the concentrations of ten metals were determined in mussels (Unio elongatulus eucirrus) and crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) collected from the Keban Dam Reservoir in Turkey. The significant spatial differences in concentrations of studied metals except As in mussels were not found. However, Co, Cr, Cu, and Zn concentrations in mussels and As, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in crayfish showed significant seasonal differences. As, Cd, and Mn levels in mussels were about nine times higher than those in crayfish. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and inorganic As in crayfish and mussels were lower than maximum permissible levels. When compared with other biomonitoring studies using mussels and crayfish, high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni in mussels and Cr and Ni in crayfish were observed due to lithogenic sources and anthropogenic activities in the basin. Bioconcentration factor values of Fe, Mn, Cd, and Zn in mussels and Zn, Cu, Fe, and Co in crayfish were > 1000, which indicates that both U. e. eucirrus and A. leptodactylus have potential to bioaccumulate these metals. Therefore, attention should be paid to mussels and crayfish from ecological and human health perspective, because they are potential vectors of metals to higher trophic levels.