The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on kidney tissue of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Forty adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups. Animals in group 1 was the control group. For 6 weeks, group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoke; group 3 received daily intraperitoneal injections of resveratrol (10 mg/kg/d); and group 4 was exposed to both cigarette smoke and intraperitoneal resveratrol. All rats were sacrificed with cervical dislocation. The kidney tissues were obtained, fixed in Bouin's fixative and embeded in paraffin blocks. Samples were sectioned to 4-5 microns thickness, stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H/E), Masson's trichromic, periodic acid-schiff (PAS) and were examined by light microscopy for tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. Results were compared by non-parametric tests. Hydropic degeneration, tubular atrophy, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, interstitial cell infiltration, vacuolar degeneration and desquamation were prominent in group 2. In group 4, hydropic degeneration, epithelial cell vacuolization and desquamation was not observed, but occasional tubular atrophy and dilation were observed. Our study suggests that, some morphological alterations in the rat kidney, due to cigarette smoke may be prevented by resveratrol.