OBJECTIVE: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella in domestic and wild animals. It also causes systemic diseases with the involvement of different parts of the human body. An efficient innate immune response is crucial to cure brucellosis with optimum antibiotic treatment. The inflammasomes are innate immune system receptors and sensors that regulate the activation of cysteine-dependent aspartate specific protease-1 (caspase-1) and caspase-1-induced cell death process known as pyroptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of CASPASE-1 and associated inflammasomes AIM2, NLRP3, and NLRC4 to analyze their relationship with the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-18, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in peripheral blood samples of patients with acute brucellosis with healthy controls.