Objective: Dexpanthenol (Dxp) plays a major role in cellular defense and in repair systems against oxidative stress and inflammatory response and it has not yet been evaluated in treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We tested the hypothesis that proposes whether Dxp decreases the severity of lung injury in an animal model of BPD.Methods: Forty rat pups were divided into four groups: control, control+Dxp, hyperoxia and hyperoxia+Dxp. All animals were processed for lung histology and tissue analysis. The degree of lung inflammation, oxidative and antioxidant capacity was assessed from lung homogenates.Results: Lung injury score and alveol diameter increased in the hyperoxia group (p<0.001). Median level of malondialdehyde, total oxidant status and oxidative stress indexes was significantly higher in the hyperoxia group compared to the other groups. The median superoxide dismutase activity in the hyperoxia group was notably less than those of control+Dxp and hyperoxia+Dxp groups (p<0.01). Similarly, lung catalase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase and reduced GSH activities in the hyperoxia group were significantly lower than other groups. Furthermore, the hyperoxia+Dxp group had lower tumor necrosis factor- and interleukin-1 median levels compared to the hyperoxia group (p=0.007).Conclusion: Dxp treatment results in less emphysematous change as well as decrease in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in an animal model of BPD.