Protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on ovary ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury was investigated in this study. Twenty four New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups as follows: group S served as sham. Group C was intraperitoneally injected with CAPE (8.5 mg/kg). In groups E + IR and C + IR, 1% ethanol and CAPE was given intraperitoneally before torsion, respectively. Then, the ovaries were subjected to IR in both groups. Ovary reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in group E + IR were significantly reduced compared to that of group S. GSH level and GSH-Px activity was significantly increased in group C + I/R. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in group E + I/R was significantly higher than in group S. CAT activity was decreased to normal levels by CAPE treatment in group C + I/R, while TBARS in group C + IR was significantly reduced compared to that of E + IR. According to histopathological examination, severe congestion, hemorrhage, edema and leukocyte infiltration were observed in E + I/R group. CAPE prominently reduced degenerative effects of IR injury thus it alleviates free radical damage.