Effects of endosulfan, thiamethoxam, and indoxacarb in combination with atrazine on multi-biomarkers in Gammarus kischineffensis


DEMİRCİ Ö., GÜVEN K., ASMA D. , ÖĞÜT S., UĞURLU P.

ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, cilt.147, ss.749-758, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 147
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.09.038
  • Dergi Adı: ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.749-758

Özet

Studies addressing the toxicity of pesticides towards non-target organisms focus on the median lethal concentration and biochemical response of individual pesticides. However, when determining environmental risks, it is important to test the combined effects of pesticides, such as insecticides and herbicides, which are frequently used together in agricultural areas. Here we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of the combined use of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides, endosulfan, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis. To do this, we tested the activities of oxidative stress, detoxification, and neurotoxicity biomarkers. Compared to atrazine alone, we detected higher glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities (oxidative stress biomarkers) when atrazine was combined with either endosulfan or indoxacarb. However, higher IBR values were determined in organisms where pesticide mixtures were used according to individual use. Based on these results, mixtures of atrazine and other pesticides may cause synergistic effects and may be evidence of increased toxicity and oxidative stress.