Ocular findings in patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity

Atas P. B. U. , Ceylan O. M. , Donmez Y. E. , Ozcan O. O.

INTERNATIONAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, vol.40, no.11, pp.3105-3113, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10792-020-01497-z
  • Page Numbers: pp.3105-3113


Aim To evaluate ocular findings, contrast sensitivity, color perception, and macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods This prospective study included a group of 37 patients aged 6-16 years diagnosed with combined ADHD and a healthy control group of 37 children. The participants underwent an ophthalmological examination. Color vision testing was administered using the Ishihara plates test. Contrast sensitivity test was performed using the Functional Acuity Contrast Test. Macular thickness and RNFL thickness were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results No significant difference was found between the patient and control groups with regard to ocular findings, color vision, and convergence insufficiency (p > 0.05). Contrast sensitivity level was significantly lower at four out of five spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 12, and 18 cpd) in the patient group compared to the control group. The RNFL thickness in nasal quadrant and macular thickness was significantly higher in the healthy control group compared to the ADHD group. Conclusion Contrast sensitivity levels and the nasal quadrant RNFL thickness were significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group. Based on the findings of the study, we suggest that the level of contrast in the tools used by ADHD patients in daily life settings should be enhanced.