In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) by detecting oxidative stress markers and performing histopathological examination. Twenty-one adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: control, caerulein, and caerulein + pentoxifylline groups. Pancreatic tissues of rats from all groups were removed for light and electron microscopic examination and determination of oxidative stress markers. Pancreatic oxidative stress markers were evaluated by the measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total glutathione (GSH). Serum amylase and lipase levels were determined spectrophotometrically. The pancreatic damage score was significantly increased (P < 0.005) in the caerulein group, whereas it was decreased (P < 0.05) in the caerulein+ with pentoxifylline group. MDA levels, CAT, SOD, GPx, and GSH activities were significantly altered (P < 0.05, P < 0.005) in the caerulein group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Oxidative stress markers were normalized with pentoxifylline administration. Caerulein administration resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in amylase and lipase levels; pentoxifylline reduced the levels of these enzymes. Pentoxifylline is potentially capable of limiting pancreatic damage produced during AP by restoring the fine structure of acinar cells and tissue antioxidant enzyme activities. We concluded that pentoxifylline may have beneficial effects in the treatment of caerulein-induced AP.