3rd International Eurasian Conference on Biological and Chemical Sciences (EurasianBioChem 2020), Ankara, Turkey, 19 - 20 March 2020, pp.612
Cumquats or kumquats (Fortunella spp.) are a group of small fruit-bearing trees, belongs in the genus Fortunella of the
family Rutaceae family. The fruits and leaves of Fortunella species have long been used in herbal medicine, especially
for colds and coughs and other inflammation of the respiratory tract (1). It may be attributed to the presence of bioactive
compounds such as flavonoids and phenolics in kumquat fruit. Since the health benefits of kumquat fruits were
understood, its plantation and production have been increased both in Turkey and throughout the world in recent years.
In fact, most of the kumquat literature published today focuses on the health benefits of the kumquat fruit. However,
little information about the phytochemical constituents responsible for the observed activities. Thus in this study the
fruits and leaves of kumquat and its six hybrids (EP.4, EP.29, EP.31, YP.117, YP.141, YP.188), obtained from Mersin
Alata Horticultural Research Institute, were compared based on their total phenolics and flavonoids. In order to
characterize the total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds in kumquat hybrids, extractions of kumquat fruit and leaf
with different solvents, including ethanol and methanol of various concentrations and hexane were carried out and
subjected to the analysis of total phenolic and flavonoid contents.
Quantitative determination of total phenolics and flavonoids, of different solvent extracts were carried out using
colorimetric methods (2,3). The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of
extract, was found to be (3.705 - 20.281 mg GAE/g dry extract) and (31.062 - 86.329 mg GAE/g dry extract) for fruit
and leaves respectively. The highest total phenolic content in leaf was observed in 60% methanol extract (86.329 mg
GAE/g, YP188 hybrid). In the fruit of kumquat, the highest phenolic content was obtained in absolute methanol extracts
(20.281 mg GAE/g, EP.4 hybrid). No significant difference could be observed among the extracts of wet and dry
samples. The highest levels of total flavonoid were obtained in ethanol extract from leaves (632,222 mg QUE/g, EP.31).
In the fruit of kumquat, the highest flavonoid content was obtained in absolute methanol extracts (313,333 mg QUE/g,