Little information is available on the relationship between serum resistin levels and other adipokines with serum lipid levels and insulin resistance in uremic patients under different dialysis modalities. Methods. This study investigated the effects of dialysis modality on serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha levels in age, sex, and total adipose tissue mass (TATM); matched 30 hemodialysis (HD) patients, 30 continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, and 30 healthy controls; and evaluated the relationship between these adipokines and dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Results. Serum resistin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were significantly increased in dialysis patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). In CAPD patients, serum leptin, resistin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels were higher than those in HD patients (p < 0.05). Leptin levels were positively correlated with TATM, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDLc) levels in both dialysis groups. Resistin levels were found to positively correlate with TATM and triglycerides in CAPD patients. No relationship was found between the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and adipokines studied. Conclusion. Serum leptin, resistin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels were higher in CAPD patients. Leptin levels were positively correlated with TATM, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDLc levels in dialysis patients. Resistin levels were positively correlated with TATM and triglycerides in CAPD patients. Glucose load during CAPD may be an important factor in increased in leptin, resistin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in CAPD patients. These results highlight the importance of leptin and resistin as determinants of dyslipidemia, especially in CAPD patients.