Background. Recent evidence suggests that the activation of platelets and their interaction with circulating cells are important independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In non-uremic patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, a relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels and platelet activity had been reported. The purposes of this study were to evaluate of effects of dialysis modality on platelet activity in patients with end-stage renal failure and to investigate the relationship between platelet activity, Hcy, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Material and Methods. In age and sex matched 19 healthy subjects, 20 hemodialysis (HD) patients, and 18 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, the expression of platelet surface receptors CD41, CD61, CD42a, and CD62P were investigated. CD62P expression was statistically significantly increased in HD patients compared with CAPD patients and controls (34.4 +/- 22.5%; 17.3 +/- 19.6%, 12.0 +/- 15.6%, respectively, p < 0.05), but not in CAPD patients compared with controls. There was a positive correlation between CD62 expression and duration of dialysis in HD patients (r = 0.498, p = 0.026). Mean plasma Hcy levels in dialysis patients were higher than reference levels. However, we could not find any relationship between CD62 expression, Hcy, and LVH in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) have a different impact on the expression of CD62: peritoneal dialysis seems to have a more favorable effect. It may be possible that the differences in biocompatibility between PD and HD potentially contribute to differences in CD62 expression.