Background Mineral metabolism has emerged as an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend that, in Stage 5 CKD, the target levels for calcium (Ca) (corrected for serum albumin), phosphate (P), calcium x phosphate (Ca x P) product and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels should be maintained at 8.4-9.5 mg/dI, 3.5-5.5 mg/dl, < 55 mg(2)/dl(2) and 150-300 pg/ml, respectively. Objectives To evaluate our ability to achieve K/DOQI guidelines for bone metabolism and disease targets in our patients and to compare them between patients on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) and also with those reported in the literature. Methods We reviewed bone metabolism laboratory parameters in 57 HD patients and 69 PD patients, who had been on dialysis for more than 9 months. Results The percentage of patients whose serum Ca, P, Ca x P product and PTH were within K/DOQI recommended target ranges were 46%, 53%, 77% and 28% in HD patients and 52%, 65%, 77% and 23% in PD patients, respectively. There were no significant differences between HD and PD patients in the percentage of all parameters that were within K/DOQI recommended target ranges. The percentage of our HD patients who had Ca, P, and PTH levels within recommended target range was similar to those in previous reports. Conclusion In our unit, the management of bone and mineral metabolism in HD and PD patients is still far short of meeting K/DOQI guidelines. These findings appear similar in HD and PD patients. Our findings resemble those reported in the literature.