Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the conversion rates of Turkish residency theses to scientific articles. Material and Methods: 22.625 residency theses written at 28 university hospitals, nine state hospitals and two military hospitals' residency programmes and recorded at the web of National Thesis Center were searched through Web of Science in order to evaluate their publication pattern in SCI-expanded journals in 1980-2005. Results: The number of published thesis at SCI expanded journals was found to be 1397 (6.2%) with the median number of citations received per paper ranging from 0.3 to 5.0. Publication percentage was highest for theses written at military hospitals and lowest for those written at state hospitals. Conclusion: Percentage of published thesis in Turkey is lower when compared to the remaining European Countries. Therefore, we need alternative practices to use our manpower, time and financial resources more effectively. The first alternative is to put an end to the obligation to write thesis in order to complete residency training in some types of hospitals or to convert this obligation to an option. Another alternative is to establish a National Thesis Advisory Center and make it essential to get approval from this center in order to conduct a thesis project.