This paper gives an overview of the literature between 2000 and 2010 on primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. We reported 2 cases of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst, and studies published in English literature on hydatid cyst developing in the retroperitoneal space were accessed via Pubmed and Google Scholar databases. Forty-one published primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst cases were evaluated, and 2 patients (1 man, 78 years old; 1 woman, 75 years old) who presented with abdominal mass caused by retroperitoneal hydatid cyst were reported. Twenty-five of the patients were men (including our patient), and 18 were women; patients ranged in age from 3 to 80 years, and the median standard deviation age was 41.37 +/- 20.4 years. On presentation, 72% of the patients complained of back or abdominal pain; 13.9% had urinary tract symptoms, and 65.1% were determined as having a palpable mass. Ultrasonography was performed on 93% of the patients, computed tomography was performed on 81.4%, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 18.6%, and intravenous pyelography test was performed on 13.9%. The results of these tests showed a cystoid mass located on the left in 32.5% of the patients, on the right in 37.2%, and in the retrovesical area in 16.2%. Serologic tests determined 67.8% of the patients were indirect hemagglutination positive, and 71.4% were positive on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a surgical approach, total exision was performed on 55.8% of patients, partial cystectomy was performed on 39.5%, and 4.6% of patients underwent unroofing. If a cystic lesion is determined in the retroperitoneal area in a patient living in an area of endemic hydatid disease, a differential diagnosis of hydatid cyst should be considered. Clinical, radiologic, serologic, and histopathologic evaluations should be made for a differential diagnosis.