A Hybrid Capsule Network for Pneumonia Detection Using Image Augmentation Based on Generative Adversarial Network

Firildak K., TALU M. F.

TRAITEMENT DU SIGNAL, vol.38, no.3, pp.619-627, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 38 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.18280/ts.380309
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Compendex, zbMATH
  • Page Numbers: pp.619-627
  • Keywords: pneumonia, capsule network, deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DCGAN), chest X-ray, data augmentation, classification, COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA, DIAGNOSIS
  • Inonu University Affiliated: Yes


Pneumonia, featured by inflammation of the air sacs in one or both lungs, is usually detected by examining chest X-ray images. This paper probes into the classification models that can distinguish between normal and pneumonia images. As is known, trained networks like AlexNet and GoogleNet are deep network architectures, which are widely adopted to solve many classification problems. They have been adapted to the target datasets, and employed to classify new data generated through transfer learning. However, the classical architectures are not accurate enough for the diagnosis of pneumonia. Therefore, this paper designs a capsule network with high discrimination capability, and trains the network on Kaggle' s online pneumonia dataset, which contains chest X-ray images of many adults and children. The original dataset consists of 1,583 normal images, and 4,273 pneumonia images. Then, two data augmentation approaches were applied to the dataset, and their effects on classification accuracy were compared in details. The model parameters were optimized through five different experiments. The results show that the highest classification accuracy (93.91% even on small images) was achieved by the capsule network, coupled with data augmentation by generative adversarial network (GAN), using optimized parameters. This network outperformed the classical strategies.