An increase of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels is commonly observed in patients on dialysis. Increased circulating levels of BNP are related to future cardiac events and associated with shorter survival in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). During the first I or 2 years on dialysis, patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been shown to have an improvement in left ventricular hypertrophy, blood pressure, and volume status. This study compares BNP levels and cardiac status of PD and HD patients without cardiovascular disease and on dialysis for less than 36 months. The correlation between plasma BNP concentration and findings of echocardiography before HD scans were examined and compared with findings of PD. Twenty-two HD patients (15 men, 7 women; mean age, 52.5 +/- 13.9 years) and 19 PD patients (10 men, 9 women; mean age, 47.6 +/- 11.3 years) were studied. There were no significant differences between HD and PD patients with regard to age, gender, duration of dialysis, left ventricular mass, left ventricular mass index (p > 0.05). Plasma BNP levels were markedly greater in HD patients (467.8 +/- 466.5 pg/ mL) than those of PD patients (143.1 +/- 165.2 pg/mL). Urine output was significantly higher in PD patients compared with HD patients (p < 0.05). A positive correlation between systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and plasma BNP in HD patients (r: 0.653, p: 0.001; r: 0.493, p: 0.023, respectively) was detected. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether lower BNP level in PD patients is an advantage.