Clinical features and the role of magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients with intracranial hypertension


Kilic B., GÜNGÖR S.

ACTA NEUROLOGICA BELGICA, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

Özet

Increased intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a defined clinical condition; however, an unsolved pathophysiologic background usually creates problems in its diagnosis and proper approach. The aim of this study was to emphasize the clinical conditions and brain magnetic resonce imaging (MRI) clues of pediatric patients, especially this clinical entity with high morbidity. Here, we review the etiology, clinical presentation, brain MRI findings, and prognosis of IIH in children. The symptoms' onset age ranged from 9 months to 16 years. Headache (81%), vomiting (37%), and diplopia (33.3%) were the most frequent symptoms. The most common etiologic factors were found to be obesity and dural venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure had mean a mean value of 615.2 +/- 248 mm H2O. A significant relationship was found between visual field impairment and height of CSF pressure (p < 0.001). Optic nerve sheath enlargement (88.8%) and optic nerve tortuosity (85.1%) were found as the most common brain MRI findings. Slit-like ventricle (37%), venous sinus thrombosis (29.6%), posterior globe sclera flattening (29.6%), empty sella (25.9%), and intraocular protrusion of the optic nerve (14.8%) were the other findings. A significant relationship was found between CSF opening pressure and the presence of optic nerve tortuosity (p = 0.002), and distension of the optic nerve sheath (p = 0.006). All patients received acetazolamide, only one patient underwent lumboperitoneal shunt, and only one received steroids. In children, IIH can present with different etiologies and symptoms. Brain MRI provides crucial clues in diagnosis. Urgent diagnosis and treatment planning are required to protect vision functions.