Update on Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Brief Review from Pathologist Standpoint


JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER, cilt.51, sa.4, ss.1176-1186, 2020 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Derleme
  • Cilt numarası: 51 Konu: 4
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s12029-020-00499-5
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1176-1186


Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and an important health problem all over the world. Its prognosis is poor. For better patient care, early diagnosis is essential. Although new imaging techniques have a big impact on hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, histopathological examination is still the gold standard for precise diagnosis. Histopathological evaluation gives exact diagnosis in the meaning of tumor size, histological subtypes, grading, and differential diagnosis from metastasis and other tumors. Immunohistochemistry as a part of diagnostic histopathological technique plays an important role in routine practice. Immunohistochemistry is useful for confirming of hepatocytic origin, supporting hepatocellular malignancy, and differential diagnosis. It also gives prognostic information. There are growing attempts to classify tumors by their molecular genetic signatures. This is also actual for hepatocellular carcinoma. This mini review focuses on the histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma including subtypes; differential diagnosis and immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool, updated or added entities, i.e., combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma; small hepatocellular carcinoma; correlation with molecular studies; and future perspectives.