This study evaluated the efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) in removing the root filling remnants and smear layer left in oval shaped root canals after using R-Endo retreatment files, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Forty eight maxillary premolars were prepared and the SAF was used in all of the teeth to remove debris and smear layer. Sixteen teeth were used as control and the other 32 teeth were obturated and randomly assigned to two groups according to the retreatment procedures: R-Endo retreatment files and R-Endo retreatment files+SAF. Then, all roots were split longitudinally for SEM evaluation. Using SEM pictures, the number of dentinal tubules and the surface area covered by filling remnants were evaluated. None of the techniques removed root filling remnants and smear layer completely. Additional use of SAF after the retreatment procedures may improve root canal cleanliness in the corona] and middle thirds of oval root canals.