1. Muscle injury (rhabdomyolysis) is one of the causes of acute renal failure (ARF). Iron, free radicals and nitric oxide (NO) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of glycerol-induced myoglobinuric ARF. L-Carnitine is an anti-oxidant and prevents the accumulation of end-products of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on myoglobinuric ARF induced by intramuscular (i.m.) hypertonic glycerol injection.