The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of amifostine (AMI) and L-carnitine (LC) against radiation-induced acute testicular damage. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (n = 6), AMI plus radiotherapy (RT) (n = 8), LC plus RT (n = 8) and RT group (n = 8). The rats were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the scrotal field. LC (300 mg/kg) and AMI (200 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. The mean seminiferous tubule diameters (MSTDs) were calculated. Testicular damage was evaluated histopathologically using Johnsen's mean testicular biopsy score criteria. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione levels were measured in tissue samples. AMI plus RT and LC plus RT groups had significantly higher MSTDs than those in the RT group (p =.003 and p =.032 respectively). MDA values of both AMI plus RT and LC plus RT groups were significantly lower than those in RT group (p <.004 and p <.012 respectively). As a result, AMI and LC have a similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute testicular damage, histopathologically and biochemically.