Determination of underlying etiology in patients with dilated and globally hypokinetic left ventricles may sometimes be difficult even after detailed history and complete clinical evaluation. Cardiac valvular and thoracic aortic calcifications have previously been reported to be used as a window to diffuse atherosclerosis of the vascular system. The authors prospectively examined the predictive value of mitral annular calcification (MAC), aortic valve calcification (AVC), and thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) in diagnosis of coronary artery disease as the underlying cause of diffuse left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. The study included 98 consecutive patients (male/female = 76/22, mean age = 58.9 +/- 10.7 years, range: 33 to 75 years) over the age of 30 years admitted to their clinics between October 1999 and December 2001 with signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure associated with documented cardiomegaly. Transthoracic echocardiography and coronary angiography were performed in all patients for the evaluation of valvular calcifications and coronary status. Although there was no significant difference between the groups with and without coronary artery stenosis (CAS), with regard to presence of MAC, patients with CAS tended to have MAC more frequently (12/61, 20% vs 4/37, 11%, p > 0.05). AVC and TAC were found to be significantly more frequent in patients with CAS compared to those without CAS (AVC, 35/61, 57% vs 4/37, 11%, p < 0.001 and TAC, 28/61, 46% vs 2/37, 5%, p < 0.001). While all 3 calcifications had sensitivity under 60%, and specificity and positive predictive value over 75% individually, the presence of any of them had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value of 91%, and negative predictive value of 73%. Thus the presence of any of these calcifications distinguished patients with coronary artery disease with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 86%. The presence of aortic valvular valve and thoracic aortic calcifications seems to be associated with significant coronary arterial stenosis; however, with relatively low negative predictive values these cannot be used in clinical practice for diagnosis of underlying coronary artery disease in patients with dilatated left ventricles and impaired systolic functions.