In this study, we aimed to determine the different sociodemographic variables of polygamous and monogamous wives, and the relationship between depression and polygamous marriage. Seventy-nine polygamous wives and 73 monogamous wives from Kahramanmaras, located in southern Turkey, were interviewed. After reviewing the data, we suggest that there is a statistically significant difference between polygamous wives and monogamous wives in terms of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. The results highlighted many implications for clinical practice and for future research. Additional research needs to be conducted in order to investigate the effects of polygamy on women's mental health.